Citation: Tudisco R, Lombardi P, Bovera F, d’Angelo D, Cutrignelli
V, Terzi V, Avallone L, Infascelli F (2006)
Genetically modified soya bean in rabbit feeding: detection of DNA fragments and evaluation of metabolic effects by enzymatic analysis.
Anim Sci 82:193–199
The presence of DNA fragments in tissues from rabbits given genetically modified (GM) soya-bean meal (solvent extracted) was investigated by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Moreover, the possible effects on cell metabolism were evaluated by determination of several specific enzymes in serum, heart, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney. The chloroplast sequence for tRNA Leu by using the Clor1/Clor2 primers designed on chloroplast trnL sequence was clearly detected. On the contrary, two couples of species specific primers for conventional (Le1-5/Le 1-3 which amplifies the soya bean lectin gene) and genetically modified (35S1/35S2 which amplifies the 35S CMV promoter that is present in the genomic structure of GM soya bean) soya bean were not found in all samples. No differences in enzyme levels were detected in serum, but a significant increase of lactic dehydrogenase, mainly concerning the LDH1 isoenzyme was found in particular in kidney and heart but not in the muscle, thus suggesting a potential alteration in the local production of the enzyme. Finally, no significant differences were detected concerning body weight, fresh organ weights and no sexual differences were detected.
This is yet another paper showing identifiable effects attributable to GM soy in short-term feeding studies. It should therefore be read in conjunction with the papers by Ermakova and Malatesta and others. This is Jeffrey Smith's summary:
Liver and other organ damage
Lab animals fed GM food have showed damage to virtually every system studied. They displayed stunted growth; bleeding stomachs; abnormal and potentially precancerous cell growth in the intestines; impaired blood cell development; misshapen cell structures in the liver, pancreas, and testicles; altered gene expression and cell metabolism; liver and kidney lesions; partially atrophied livers; inflamed kidneys; less developed brains and testicles; enlarged livers, pancreases, and intestines; reduced digestive enzymes; higher blood sugar; increased death rates; higher offspring mortality; and immune system dysfunction.
The state of the liver — a main detoxifier for the body — is a key indicator of toxins.
* Rats fed potatoes engineered with the GNA lectin (to produce an insecticide) had smaller and partly atrophied livers.8 * Rats fed Monsanto's Mon 863 corn, engineered to produce Bt- toxin, had liver lesions and other indications of toxicity.9 * Rabbits fed GM soy showed altered enzyme production in their livers as well as higher metabolic activity.10 * The livers of rats fed Roundup Ready canola were 12 to 16 percent heavier, possibly due to liver disease or inflammation.11 * Microscopic analysis of the livers of mice fed Roundup Ready soybeans revealed altered gene expression and structural and functional changes.12 Many of these changes reversed after the mice diet was switched to non-GM soy, indicating that GM soy was the culprit.
The findings, according to molecular geneticist Michael Antoniou, Ph.D., "are not random and must reflect some 'insult' on the liver by the GM soy." Antoniou, who does human gene therapy research at King's College London, said that although the long-term consequences of the GM soy diet are not known, it "could lead to liver damage and consequently general toxemia."13
8. Arpad Pusztai, "Can science give us the tools for recognizing possible health risks of GM food," Nutrition and Health, 2002, Vol 16 Pp 73-84.
9. John M. Burns, "13-Week Dietary Subchronic Comparison Study with MON 863 Corn in Rats Preceded by a 1-Week Baseline Food Consumption Determination with PMI Certified Rodent Diet #5002," December 17, 2002 www.monsanto.com/monsanto/content/sci_tech/ prod_safety/fullratstudy.pdf
10. R. Tudisco, P. Lombardi, F. Bovera, D. d'Angelo, M. I. Cutrignelli, V. Mastellone, V. Terzi, L. Avallone, F. Infascelli, "Genetically Modified Soya Bean in Rabbit Feeding: Detection of DNA Fragments and Evaluation of Metabolic Effects by Enzymatic Analysis," Animal Science 82 (2006): 193-199.
11. Comments to ANZFA about Applications A346, A362 and A363 from the Food Legislation and Regulation Advisory Group (FLRAG) of the Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA) on behalf of the PHAA, "Food produced from glyphosate-tolerant canola line GT73," www.iher.org.au/
12. M. Malatesta, C. Caporaloni, S. Gavaudan, M. B. Rocchi, S. Serafini, C. Tiberi, G. Gazzanelli, "Ultrastructural Morphometrical and Immunocytochemical Analyses of Hepatocyte Nuclei from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean," Cell Struct Funct. 27 (2002): 173-180 13. Jeffrey M. Smith, Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods, Yes! Books, Fairfield, IA USA 2007
[This section on Consumer Health Concerns from genetically modified food crops is derived entirely from the work by Jeffrey M. Smith, director of the Institute for Responsible Technology and author of “Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods” and “Seeds of Deception.” www.responsibletechnology.org]